Symphytum officinale

A perennial herbaceous plant can grow up to 15-50 cm, and blooms during March-April, it can be found as a spontaneous plant, cultivated and ornamental in gardens.

Contra-indications: The use of this plant causes liver disease due to the contents so hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The alkaloid ” simfito-cianoglossina” as toxic paralyzes of the nervous system, if used as a spice in food. Some countries banned its use (USA, Italy).

Remark: Farmers of medicinal plants shall be careful upon the presence of this plant in planted parcels and immediately shall be removed from there, also the spontaneous plant collectors shall be careful upon the presence of this plant in nature and avoid the mixing of medicinal plants, and not causing any pollution to the other collected products.

Tussilago farfara

It is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by seed and rhizomes. Coltsfoot is frequently found as a spontaneous plant but also in cultivated parcels, it flowers in early spring and can grow up to 10-30 cm. Coltsfoot contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, senecionine, and senkirkine which cause liver damage to humans, especially pregnant women are more sensitive.

Remark: The plant grows as a spontaneous plant, medicinal plant collectors shall be careful to avoid the spontaneous plant collections in areas where this toxic plant is widespread, in order to avoid the contact to not cause any pollution to the collected plants. Furthermore, if found in cultivated parcels, it shall be removed.

Echium plantagineum

It is a biennial plant ( life cycle within 2 years), usually grows from 30 to 60 cm. It is a weed found in warmer regions. Mainly can be found in areas dominated by precipitation and can bloom in a wide range of lands.
The plant contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is toxic. It is toxic mainly to animals, it’s consumption causes weights loss and can lead to the death of animals, to humans it causes irritation of the skin.
Remark: The plant grows as a spontaneous plant, medicinal plant collectors shall be careful to avoid the spontaneous plant collection in areas where this toxic plant is widespread, in order to avoid the contact to not cause any pollution to the collected plants. Furthermore, it found in cultivated parcels, it shall be removed.

Myosotis arvensis

Perennial herbaceous plant, with lanceolate-spatulate leaf. This plant can be found: fields, gardens, yards as weed, but it also can be found as a spontaneous plant in the meadow, pasture, rocky areas etc. Flowering takes place during the following months: June-September and grows up to 80 cm.

 

Remark: Spontaneous medicinal plant collectors shall be careful to avoid spontaneous plant collection in areas where this toxic plant is widespread aiming to avoid the contact in order to not cause any pollution to the collected plants. Whereas in the planted parcel, this plant should immediately prune and completely removed from the parcel in order to avoid the pollution of other cultivated plants.

Cynoglossum officinale

Usually found in pastures along roadsides, forests, abandoned fields. Its seed toxic and has the potential to toxicate pets and wildlife. IT contains toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which cause the liver’s cells and digestive disorders, restlessness, lack of concentration, convulsions, and coma.

Remark: Spontaneous medicinal plant collectors shall be careful to avoid spontaneously plant collection in areas where this toxic plant is widespread aiming to avoid the contact in order not to cause any pollution to the collected plants.

Heliotropium europaeum

It is a perennial plant; mainly grows up in planted parcels. IT may grow in semi-shade (light forests) or no shade. As a weed containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, it prefers moisture land.
They can be found as spontaneous plants mainly in pastures, is toxic for herbivorous animals by toxicating the grass.

Remark: Collectors and farmers of medical plants shall be careful pruning and removing this toxic plant from the planted parcel as well as to avoid the collection of spontaneous plants in the areas where this plant is present aiming to avoid the contact in order not to cause ani pollution to the collected plants.

Eupatorium cannabinum

It is a spontaneous perennial plant mainly found in higher-moisture places near river basins, streams, marshes, meadows and forests with humidity. It also can be found in dry habitats. It contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, flavonoids which are irritating to skin, causing fever, chills, and vomiting.

Remark:  During the spontaneous collection, the farmers shall be careful not harvesting around the areas where these plants are present in order to avoid mixing with plants whereby will cause pollution.

Leucanthemum vulgare

A plant mainly distributed as spontaneous in pastures, but it also can be found in arable lands as weed, contains polyacetylene and thiophene which are highly toxic to herbivorous animals.

Remark: One shall be careful upon presence of this plant in parcels planted with medical plants and the same during the pruning must be collected and removed from parcel and disposed in a safe place where causing no pollution. Also during the spontaneous collection must be careful to not mix this plant with the collected plants and to avoid collecting in the areas where this plant is found.

Senecio jacobaea

t is a plant found in pastures, but grows also in arable lands, is toxic plant to animals and contains various alkaloids, making it toxic to animals and humans. It contains the following alkaloids acetylerucifoline, (Z) – eruficoline, (E) – erucifoline, 21- hydroxyintegerrimine, integerrimine, jacoline, jaconine, jacobine, jacozine, riddelline, retrorsine, senecivernine, senecionine, seneciphylline, spartiodine and usaranime.

Remark: One shall be careful upon presence of this plant in parcels planted with medical plants;
the same during the pruning must be collected and removed from parcel and disposed in a safe place where causing no pollutions, as well as during spontaneous collection must be careful not to mix this plant with the collected one.

Senecio vulgaris

Grow up in loam humus soil, is found in arable lands, gardens, vineyards. It is a powerful competitive of cultivated plants, has an unpleasant scent and is toxic to humans and animals. Contains alkaloids (senecionine and senecio) whereas in root contains insulin and routine. It causes bleeding, loss of appetite, a disorder of stomach function and transmits several diseases, mainly rust.

Remark: One shall be careful upon presence of this plant in parcels planted with medicinal plants and the same during the pruning must be collected and removed from the parcel and disposed in a safe place where causing no pollution to the cultivated plants, furthermore, if spontaneously encountered shall be avoided mixing or contact with collected plants.